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Becoming secularized or confiscated by the State this was the case, among others, of the Dervish Nowadays, however, a crucial change is underway and can possibly generate a relevant change in the framework of the highly secularized Turkish society, as an effect of increasing Islamization of Turkish institutions, concerning education, public justice and financial system. Moreover after September 11, the role of Islamic Foundations as potential driver of support to terroristic groups is increasingly under scrutiny and philanthropic activties reveal their multiple facets in a complex framework in which the hybrid nature of many terrorist organizations, with their ambivalence between terrorist activities and philanthropic and humanitarian actions, emerge as a dramatic feature of the present.

The need for financial transparency and accountability both for religeous NGOs as well as for other type of grantmaking organizations becomes crucial to avoid the danger of misuse of foundations in financing terrorist mouvements. What should be underlined is that the ambivalence it not the product neither of the reliegous norms, nor of the charible practices but is related to the behaviour of instituitional and individual actors. In itself the Zakaat as a charity tax presents differences but also similarities with other practices of tithing.

While the Islamic radition distinguishes between the obligatory As observed by Thomas H. Jeavons the practice of thithing has its roots in the Old Testament. Beyond the impact of specific teachings, those who participate in religious congregations also generally see giving model on a regular basis as a public act, and learn giving as a social behavior. Generally speaking one can affirm that religious people are more generous overall than non-believers but it is also a matter of fact that the most generous are not necessarily religious and, moreover, that in religious giving there is the risk that a significant proportion is utilized for the reproduction and the maintenance of the religious institutions themselves, as it can happen for any other type of non profit organizations.

As an effect of combining these two contradictory sentences one can affirm that religious giving does not necessarily reflect the spirit of generosity. In extreme cases religion can also act to limit and contain the social benefit of civic entrepreneurship. After all, as Robert Wuthnow has recalled it, giving is essentially a social — and to many extent political — transaction. The spirit of generosity depends on the contexts which means that it is shaped by other factors than religion as such and involves aspects of social life that are embedded in social institutions and in their evolutionary process.

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In this perspective it is not surprising that the poor and the people in situation of insecurity give more than the rich and the persons who live in situation of political, social and economic security. Giving within poor communities is crucial to their survival. Without mutual help survival will be more difficult.

Starvation, maltunitrion, dissemination of diseases will be more severe. In monotheistic religions and particularly in the Jewish tradition, during the medieval and modern period. On the basis of archive documents and iconography sources Gioia Perugia describes the role of a quasi institutional space animated by the principles of mutual aid and solidarity between each individual, the family and the community as a whole and particularly analyses the role of benevolent voluntary societies created in the ghetto era who cared for the physical and spiritual needs of the disadvantaged.

In this increasingly consolidated social space obligation and volunteering are strictly interconnected as moral imperatives. Patterns of obligations, within the more limited system of nuclear family, are at work also at present in the most developed countries, where differences in the style of giving are related to contexts and generated a pattern that I will define tentatively as differentiated isomorphism. The development of the research activities will demonstrate if this heuristic tool is an appropriate and strategic conceptual framework or not.

Reflections on the present through the laboratory of the past: the challenge of the Mediterranean as a field of studies in philanthropy. In the US every income group gives more to religious causes than to non-religious. In giving to religious organization increased by 5. In the Mediterranean and particularly in Southern Europe if one considers congregations and religious associations the impact of religion on giving is much lower as compared to the United States.

The picture changes dramatically, however, if one considers the role of the Catholic Church as an institution of charitable activities as well as the main driver of volunteering organizations. It changes also if the inquiry concerns Sooth Eastern Europe, where according to a detailed report by Seal, a research network of the European Foundation Center at present the Third Sector includes a diversity of religious and faith-based associations, sometimes established by citizens and sometimes by religious institutions.

Regardless of the fact that in the old system religious communities were marginalized, their influence on citizens remained very present. This became very obvious during the tragic war of As they did during the war, religious communities in today's Bosnia and Herzegovina are aiming to become influential forces in the republic's political and social life. This is especially obvious when we look at mono-ethnic and religious activities, aid provision and support to nationalist political parties.

Many religious-oriented NGOs are involved in overcoming inherent divisions and other barriers to reconciliation. Some of these organizations are explicitly religious, i. Others may be termed "faith-based". Faith-based NGOs engage in a range of activities, including promoting inter faith dialogue, providing immediate humanitarian aid, and fostering long Therefore one should take into consideration the difference of context between a situation of quasi — monopoly and a situation of increasing pluralism where there is a proliferation of different churches.

Wright or wrong this theory, it is a matter of fact that religious pluralism seems to facilitate the scholarly engagement in this field of research. In comparison with Europe where the study of religious organizations and their relations with giving practices is still the main field of research of few and isolated scholars, since the seminal book by Robert Wuthnow and Virginia Hodgkinson, North American scholars have produced a consistent number of studies.

One of the aims of the research project is to contribute to fill the gap between two world the Anglo — Saxon tradition in which philanthropy is full legitimized both in theory and in practice and the Mediterranean world where the oldest roots of philanthropy are located but in which both the practice and their institutional framework as well as the academic work and institutions are still in a pioneering phase.

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In the US important research centers such as the Hauser Center at Harvard University and the Center on Philanthropy at the Indiana University have focused religions and philanthropy from different disciplinary perspectives. The increasing amount of publications about faith and secularization has certainly contributed to stimulate the debate. Among other scholars, Peter Dobkin Hall, a well-known specialist in history of philanthropy, has largely contributed to stimulate the research on the relations between religions Dobkin Hall states that the major studies of religion, giving and volunteering treat religion generically.

The Collapse and Revival of American Community. This The Jewish Diaspora is traditionally a vehicle of protection of the community particularly for the Haredi community, an ultra orthodox Jewish community, analyzed by Benjamin Gidron, as well as of social interaction and integration within and across different contexts. Regarding the lifestyle of the Warburg brothers the range covered the strictly religious orientation of Fritz Warburg to the fully secularized lifestyle of Max Warburg who did not even make an effort to familiarize his children with the Jewish belief.

Regarding the question of motivation the author infers that there did not exist a specific Jewish reason for the patronage, but rather a civil implicitness of the family that did not differ from the patronage of non-Jewish wealthy citizens of Hamburg. The question of motivation and intention of Jewish benefactors is the focus of the second paper. The Jewish foundation activity began in Frankfurt in the late s and s. The author argues that a central motive of the sponsors was to shape the social and cultural features of their In doing so the foundations goal was twofold: to influence local conditions by strengthening the appeal of the town as a whole and to make the Jewish sponsors better integrated as members of a minority into the informal networks of the town.

Both papers tend to argue that besides the diversity of individual motivations — certain religious and cultural imprints were noticeable but their influence and patterns should be related to the contexts and their historical variations. This approach finds a building block in the argument developed by Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris in their book Sacred and Secular Religion and Politics Worldwide about the cultural tradition axiom. It states that worldviews that were originally linked with religious traditions have shaped the culture of each nation or social group and have been transmitted to the citizens despite their religious orientation, not directly by the church or religious organizations but by the educational system, the mass media, the social networks.

Even in highly secular societies, the historical legacy of traditional religious practices and values continue to define cultural differences. This concerns also organizational models associations and congregations versus centralized institutions and the attitude to other groups including philanthropic activities which enter this complex landscape by contributing to its shaping, being at the same time shaped by its evolutionary configuration.

To many extent — not in all cases — philanthropy acts as a bridge between traditional sacred and secularized societies, being a social practice which frequently embeds religious traditions The theoretical framework: lessons from the past. The first consideration is that the complexity of the relation between religions and philanthropy are related to a fundamental paradox: their relations are universalistic and deeply rooted in the history of humanity and at the same time they are very specific and variable in different historical times. Since the modern age as an example the relation between religion and philanthropy has been shaped by the triangulation with the role of the Church in the consolidation of national states and related civil societies as well as to their The term "philanthropy" has been used in France since modern times, but discredited by the French Revolution.

In Germany for a long time it was almost exclusively used in the field of art and culture. These differences can be ascribed to the different religious mentalities, values and traditions of the respective countries shaped by Catholicism, Calvinism, Lutheranism and Protestantism. In a recent paper based on quantitative data on the development of the welfare state Klaus Weber states that the inner — Protestant differences are stronger than differences between a Lutheran and Catholic tradition.